History of Leasing

According to historians and economists of leasing transactions were, in ancient Sumer and the state date back to around 2000 BC. er. Thus, the clay tablets found in the Sumerian city of Ur, contain information about the lease of agricultural implements, land, water sources, cattle and other animals.

Historians have also argued that Aristotle referred to the idea of ​​leasing the treatise "Wealth is in use, not ownership," written around 350 BC English author T. Clark argues that the lease had been known long before Aristotle lived: he finds several provisions of the lease in the laws of Hammurabi, taken around 1760 BC The Roman Empire also has not remained aloof from the problems of leasing -
they are reflected in the institutions of Justinian.

Introduction to the economic lexicon of the term "leasing" (lease - take and pass the property for temporary use) associated with the operations of the telephone company Bell, whose leadership in 1877, decided not to sell their phones, and rent. However, the first society for which leases have become the basis of its activities, was established only in 1952 in San Francisco, the American company "United States Leasing Corporation", and thus the U.S. has become home to new business, particularly banking.

In the early 60's American business "moved" leasing across the ocean to Europe, where the first leasing company - "Deutsche lising GMBH" appeared in 1962 in Dusseldorf. By the mid-60's leasing operations in the U.S. accounted for 1 billion dollars. By the end of the 80 years they have exceeded 110 billion dol.2, ie a quarter-century have increased by more than a hundred times. Such rapid growth in rental operations due to certain benefits associated partners in the leasing transaction. At present, the countries with market economies, leasing operations for business entities are advantageous for re-equipment of production.

In 1980 - ies. in the United States acquired the distribution of leasing aircraft. During these years, the corporation MacDonnell Douglas managed by a new financial policy by means of leasing to gain a market for their model aircraft in competition with Boeing. Douglas proposed the concept was called "Fly before buy"

In Western Europe the first financial leasing companies emerged in the late 50's - early 60's. In England, pioneered the modern leasing business was the company "Mercantile Leasing Corporation", pre-emption in 1960, however, the development of leasing operations hampered by the uncertainty of their status in terms of civil, commercial and tax law. Only after the tax legislation reflected the legal status of the consolidation of leasing contracts, their growth starts to be characterized by a high rate.

Since the early 60's leasing business has its own development in the Asian continent.

Currently, most of the world's leasing market is concentrated in the Triangle, U.S. - Western Europe - Japan. " In Western Europe, lessors act mainly specialized leasing companies, which in 75-80% of cases are controlled by banks or their subsidiaries are considered.

For Japan, the characteristic is the expansion of leasing operations from funding services to provide "service package" that includes a combination of sales, leasing and loans. These services are called complex lease.

In Russia, leasing was used until the early 90's. in a relatively small scale and only in international trade. Leasing considered Soviet foreign trade organizations, primarily as a form of acquisition or sale of equipment such as large universal and other expensive machines, production lines, road construction, forging and pressing, power equipment, as well as repair shops, aircraft, ships, vehicles , computers, etc., using a special (form) of credit.

A variety of leasing operations, actively used Minmorflotom USSR, is hiring a ship without a crew.

Beginning of the active development of leasing operations in the domestic market can be defined in 1990, in connection with the relocation of enterprises on the rental management forms. Noticeable phenomenon in the formation of the initial rules of leasing became the basis of legislation of the USSR and Union Republics on lease from 23 November 1989 and a letter from the State Bank on Feb. 16, 1990 № 270 "0 chart of accounts", which was submitted to the procedure for presenting leasing in accounting. Develop a network of commercial banks contributed to the introduction of leasing in banking practice.

The Russian Government has adopted a number of decisions that contribute to the development of leasing operations. Presidential Decree of 17 September 1994 № 1929 "On the development of financial leasing in investment activity" has identified priorities for the development of leasing. Pursuant to this Decree the Government of the Russian Federation adopted the Resolution № 633 "On the development of leasing in investment activity." This Resolution approves the Provisional Regulations on the lease. In furtherance of the Resolution adopted guidelines on the calculation of lease payments, the approximate agreement on financial leasing of movable property with the full amortization, the typical articles of the leasing company.

Then there was a federal law of 29 October 1998 N 164-FZ "On Leasing." Also adopted a federal program for the development of leasing in Russia in 1996-2000. Whose purpose is to create favorable legal, economic, organizational and methodological conditions for leasing development, including the establishment of regulatory framework, improving the tax, the introduction of generic guidance documents on leasing transactions introduction of licensing of leasing companies, the organization of the Fund to promote leasing in the Russian Federation, etc.

Today in the XXI century leasing is one of the most effective ways to purchase costly plant and equipment, upgrade existing capital assets. In developed countries the share of leasing operations account for 30-40% of real investment in the economy.